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 The history of Rice is as old as mankind, but probably not older than 2,800 B.C. as known to the historians. Originally Paddy was a self growing plant in the low lying areas adjoining sea shores and river banks. In the sub continent, Rice grain botanically known as “oryza stiva“ is the staple food of almost half of the mankind. Its coarse varieties are consumed by low-income people while the fine and improved types with varying recipes occupy the important place at elite class dinning tables. No formal or informal occasion can afford to skip this important food item at homes or restaurants, hence consumed in huge quantities all over the world. It is relished by the majority of people irrespective of class, rich or poor. Rice, being the most enriched food grain, is grown all over the world and is a comprehensive food consisting of the following ingredients 

Nutritional value per 100 grams (Energy 350 Calories)

Protein                     : 6.4 grams

Carbohydrates        :  79 grams

Dietary Fiber          : 2.4 grams

Fat                            : 0.4 grams

Calcium                   :  09 ml grams

Iron                          :  04 ml grams

Thiamine                 : 0.21 ml grams

Riboflavin               : 0.05 ml grams

Niacin                      : 03.8 ml grams

For a conventional grain crop there are three major factors for its raising viz. fertile soil (land), desired water requirements and fertilizers (mineral constituents), but rice is a crop which requires a warm, humid and damp climate from the period of its sowing (transplantation) till its ripening and this factor rather becomes imperative for fine varieties of rice. The moist atmosphere during this period helps in making the rice grain longer in size, transparent & lustrous in texture, aromatic and palatable in taste 



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